Methods an Oncologist Uses to Treat Cancer

Cancer is a formidable disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Fortunately, there are various treatments that can help in the fight against cancer. Oncologists, medical professionals who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, employ a range of techniques and therapies to tackle this complex disease. This post explores some of the methods an oncologist uses to treat cancer.


Surgery is one of the primary cancer treatments. It involves the removal of tumors or affected tissues from the body. Oncologists may recommend surgery as the initial treatment or as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. The surgery involves excising the tumor completely. Depending on the cancer type and stage, different surgical procedures may be utilized, such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or colectomy.


Chemotherapy kills cancer cells or inhibits their growth using drugs. These medications can be taken orally, administered intravenously, or delivered via injections. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with surgery or radiation therapy to target remaining cancer cells or shrink tumors before surgical intervention. Although chemotherapy can cause side effects, such as hair loss and nausea, advancements in medical research have led to the development of more targeted and tolerable chemotherapy drugs.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy employs high-energy radiation beams to destroy cancer cells or hinder their growth. This treatment can be delivered externally (external beam radiation therapy) or internally (brachytherapy). It is commonly used in conjunction with surgery or as a standalone treatment to eliminate any remaining cancer cells or to alleviate symptoms in the advanced stages of cancer. Advances in technology have made radiation therapy more precise, minimizing damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor.


Immunotherapy enhances a body's immune system to better fight cancer cells. It involves the use of substances that stimulate the immune system or drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells, enabling the immune system to recognize and destroy them more effectively. Immunotherapy has shown promising results in various cancer types and has given hope to patients who may not respond well to traditional treatments.

Targeted Therapy:

Targeted therapy focuses on specific molecules or genes that contribute to cancer growth and progression. Oncologists use drugs or other substances that interfere with these molecules, preventing the cancer cells from growing and dividing. This therapy is often utilized when specific genetic mutations are present in the cancer cells.

Hormone Therapy:

Hormone therapy is commonly used for cancers that are hormone-dependent, such as breast and prostate cancer. It involves blocking or lowering hormone levels in the body or interfering with hormone receptors on cancer cells to inhibit their growth.

Oncologists employ a variety of treatment methods to combat cancer. Determining the most appropriate treatment plan depends on factors such as cancer type, stage, and the patient's overall health. Seeking early diagnosis and treatment from an oncologist improves the chances of successful outcomes and enhances a patient's quality of life.

For more information about cancer treatment, contact a medical professional in your area.